The respiration system is the web that connects your organ and tissues that helps you breathe. The organs and other parts of your body functioning in breathing, when oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged, make up your respiratory system.
In simple words, the respiratory system is a process that takes in oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide. The respiratory rate in adults is 12 to 16 breaths in an adult.
Respiration is a metabolic process that all living creatures go through. It is a biological reaction that occurs within the cells of living organisms. The energy (ATP-Adenosine triphosphate) is generated throughout this process by the breakdown of glucose, which is then required by cells to execute various functions. Every living entity, from single-celled critters to multicellular giants, engages in respiration.
Types of Respiration
There are two types of respiration:
- Aerobic Respiration
- Anaerobic Respiration
Aerobic Respiration System
Aerobic Respiration is cellular respiration. It takes place in the presence of molecular oxygen to produce energy. The food is entirely decomposed into CO2 and water. The continuous process of aerobic respiration takes place in the cells of plants and animals. The following is the chemical equation for aerobic respiration:
Glucose(C6H12O6) + Oxygen(6O2) → Carbon dioxide(6CO2) + Water(6H2O)+ Energy (ATP)
Aerobic respiration takes place in two ways – Direct and Indirect. It involves an exchange of gases. The aerobic respiratory system can be found in the cytoplasm and mitochondria. All mammals have an aerobic respiratory system.
Anaerobic Respiration System
The second type of respiration is Anaerobic respiration takes place without the presence of molecular oxygen. It is partially oxidized and also known as fermentation. Anaerobic respiration takes place in micro-organisms like bacteria, yeast, and parasitic worms.
Glucose(C6H12O6) → Alcohol 2(C2H50 H) = Carbon dioxide 2(CO2) + Energy(ATP)
Anaerobic respiration does not exchange any form of gases. The glucose breaks down into ethyl alcohol, carbon dioxide, and energy during the procedure. Apart from lower organisms, anaerobic respiration occurs only during heavy activities.
The basic difference between the two types of respiration is the inclusion of oxygen during the process of cellular respiration. Humans use anaerobic respiration to generate energy and this takes place only when muscles do not get oxygen because of the heavy activities.
Phases of Respiration
Respiration occurs in the cytoplasm and surrounding the plasma membrane in prokaryotic cells. In eukaryotic cells, respiration takes place in the mitochondria, which is also known as the powerhouse of the cell.
The primary step in cellular respiration is glycolysis. In the absence of oxygen, the cells use fermentation to produce modest amounts of ATP. Glycolysis involves six enzymes during the process and is also the stage that breaks glucose molecules into two molecules of pyruvate. The end product of the glycolysis reaction is 2 pyruvate, 2ATP, and 2 NDH molecules.
The process of oxidative phosphorylation is the transfer of electrons from NADH or FADH2 to O2 via a succession of electron carriers, resulting in the formation of ATP molecules. It’s the final process in the cellular respiration process. The process takes place in the mitochondria and is also referred to as the electron transport chain.
Citric Acid Cycle
The citric acid cycle also takes place within the mitochondria’s matrix of a cell. It is the second stage of cellular respiration that specifically occurs in aerobic respiration. It releases the stored energy. The citric Acid Cycle is also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle or Kreb’s cycle. There are two ATP produced during the procedure in each phase.
The respiratory system is the most important procedure taking place in your body. It is essential for all living organisms. It helps release energy to help your body perform activities. Stay updated with our health Blogs.